Kingdom of Spain

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the northwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal.

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  • Roderic’s forces were ill-equipped and exhausted ahead of the decisive battle, but in fact, the Visigoths had lost the war long before 711. Roderic depended on Spain’s nobles to answer his war summons, but he and his predecessors had done little to secure their allegiance. Some nobles stayed home. Of those who showed, the disaffected commanders who guarded Roderic’s flanks simply wheeled round and headed home at the first whiff of battle, whether from fear, treachery, or a cold calculus that it just wasn’t worth it. The war was also lost through the Visigoth persecution of the Jews, who largely welcomed the Muslims, if not quite as liberators, then in the hope that anyone was preferable to the brutal Visigoths. Most of all, the Visigoths were defeated by their own inability to bring prosperity to Iberia. Resistance might have been greater had more Iberians felt they had something to lose.

    Christopher LowneyA Vanished World

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